In most cases, the macronutrient profile for a keto diet for beginners consists of about 5–10% carbohydrates, 15–25% protein, and the remaining 65–80% from fat. By restricting glucogenic substrates (i.e. nutrients that increase blood glucose levels, like carbohydrates and glucogenic amino acids from proteins), a deeper level of ketosis can be achieved, which may have a plethora of benefits as discussed below. As an example, one study compared diets with 30, 60, and 100 grams of carbohydrates per day and found that restricting carbohydrates to 30 grams led to a greater increase in circulating ketone levels and body fat loss.
When adopting a keto diet for beginners, ensuring that it has been “well-formulated” is indispensable. Unfortunately, this critical factor is often overlooked and makes adherence to this diet very difficult. In addition, taking into consideration food quality and micronutrients are also just as critical. A well-formulated ketogenic diet will also aid in the prevention or alleviation of the side effects/”keto-flu” that are often experienced with the keto-adaptation process. To help create a well-formulated ketogenic diet, some points of consideration are outlined below:
It can take many weeks for someone to notice differences. If you’re weight training and doing the diet you may not notice weight loss immediately because you are growing muscle and muscle is heavier than fat. Elsewise, for me I went really strict starting out. I did under 30 carbs a day for the first week and measured my ketone levels with the piss sticks you can buy at cvs and was entering ketosis after 3 days. I went up to 40 carbs a day for the next 3 months and lost 60lbs of fat. I was 287 lbs and weighed in at 227 when I finished. Mind you I exercised daily doing heavy weight training and intermediate cardio. The diet does work though. I did put on lean muscle while getting down to a healthy weight for my height. It helped with my panic disorder as well as giving me a lot of energy.
Can’t you take ketone supplements? No. While it is possible to elevate ketones by taking them, “without the low-carb stimulus, there is no net increase in ketone production, no decrease in insulin, and no net increase in fat oxidation,” says Volek. Don’t trust trainers or “body hackers” who say you can induce ketosis quickly without changing your diet.
Frederick F. Samaha, M.D., Nayyar Iqbal, M.D., Prakash Seshadri, M.D., Kathryn L. Chicano, C.R.N.P., Denise A. Daily, R.D., Joyce McGrory, C.R.N.P., Terrence Williams, B.S., Monica Williams, B.S., Edward J. Gracely, Ph.D., and Linda Stern, M.D., “A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity,” N Engl J Med 2003; 348:2074-2081. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022637.
Normal dietary fat contains mostly long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are more ketogenic than LCTs because they generate more ketones per unit of energy when metabolised. Their use allows for a diet with a lower proportion of fat and a greater proportion of protein and carbohydrate, leading to more food choices and larger portion sizes. The original MCT diet developed by Peter Huttenlocher in the 1970s derived 60% of its calories from MCT oil. Consuming that quantity of MCT oil caused abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting in some children. A figure of 45% is regarded as a balance between achieving good ketosis and minimising gastrointestinal complaints. The classical and modified MCT ketogenic diets are equally effective and differences in tolerability are not statistically significant. The MCT diet is less popular in the United States; MCT oil is more expensive than other dietary fats and is not covered by insurance companies.
Tracking protein is important for anyone who has adopted a ketogenic diet. Depending on activity level and other metabolic factors, some individuals may be able to tolerate more protein. As mentioned above, at a certain level protein can be glucogenic; so tailor it to your needs. However, we would say to lean towards more, not less, especially for older individuals trying to preserve muscle mass.
Carbohydrate-restricted ketosis: This type of ketosis mimics the same biological alterations seen during lengthy fasts, but without the complete restriction of food. Carbohydrate-restricted ketosis is achieved primarily through a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. This restriction, in turn, results in reductions of insulin and blood glucose levels similar to that of fasting, which again increases blood ketone levels. For most individuals, nutritional ketosis is much more sustainable than fasting or starvation ketosis. Fasting can still have its place in a keto diet for beginners. Many individuals following a ketogenic diet like to implement a regular fasting protocol such as intermittent fasting (IF) (12–20 hours daily) or every-other-day fasts (EOD), depending on their goals. This practice is not critical for success on a ketogenic diet, but it can enhance the level of ketone production, and thus magnify the benefits.
The ketogenic diet is calculated by a dietitian for each child. Age, weight, activity levels, culture, and food preferences all affect the meal plan. First, the energy requirements are set at 80–90% of the recommended daily amounts (RDA) for the child's age (the high-fat diet requires less energy to process than a typical high-carbohydrate diet). Highly active children or those with muscle spasticity require more food energy than this; immobile children require less. The ketogenic ratio of the diet compares the weight of fat to the combined weight of carbohydrate and protein. This is typically 4:1, but children who are younger than 18 months, older than 12 years, or who are obese may be started on a 3:1 ratio. Fat is energy-rich, with 9 kcal/g (38 kJ/g) compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrate or protein, so portions on the ketogenic diet are smaller than normal. The quantity of fat in the diet can be calculated from the overall energy requirements and the chosen ketogenic ratio. Next, the protein levels are set to allow for growth and body maintenance, and are around 1 g protein for each kg of body weight. Lastly, the amount of carbohydrate is set according to what allowance is left while maintaining the chosen ratio. Any carbohydrate in medications or supplements must be subtracted from this allowance. The total daily amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrate is then evenly divided across the meals.