Because some cancer cells are inefficient in processing ketone bodies for energy, the ketogenic diet has also been suggested as a treatment for cancer.[59][60] A 2018 review looked at the evidence from preclinical and clinical studies of ketogenic diets in cancer therapy. The clinical studies in humans are typically very small, with some providing weak evidence for anti-tumour effect, particularly for glioblastoma, but in other cancers and studies, no anti-tumour effect was seen. Taken together, results from preclinical studies, albeit sometimes contradictory, tend to support an anti-tumor effect rather than a pro-tumor effect of the KD for most solid cancers.[61]
Keto for Epilepsy: The ketogenic diet originated in the 1920s as an effective treatment for children suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy. Since then, its highly successful applications have expanded to treat adult epileptic patients as well. This was an important progression in treatment because, despite the introduction of anticonvulsant drugs in the 1930s, at least one third of patients suffering from epileptic seizures are still fully resistant to anticonvulsant drug therapy.[26] Early studies found that, when placed on a ketogenic diet, 12% of children suffering from epileptic seizures experienced full remission and 42% saw a reduction in seizures.[27]
I would love to share your journey on my blog. If you are planning to start this keto diet, please take before pictures, progress pictures, keep a food diary, and keep track of your weight and measurements. Then when you are ready maybe at your halfway point, or once you reach your goal weight, you can send me your results for me to share with others.
In 1921, Rollin Turner Woodyatt reviewed the research on diet and diabetes. He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (known collectively as ketone bodies), were produced by the liver in otherwise healthy people when they were starved or if they consumed a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.[10] Dr. Russell Morse Wilder, at the Mayo Clinic, built on this research and coined the term "ketogenic diet" to describe a diet that produced a high level of ketone bodies in the blood (ketonemia) through an excess of fat and lack of carbohydrate. Wilder hoped to obtain the benefits of fasting in a dietary therapy that could be maintained indefinitely. His trial on a few epilepsy patients in 1921 was the first use of the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy.[10]
Everyone has to find their nutritional sweet spot for producing enough ketones and staying in ketosis, but “the core principle of the diet is to keep carbohydrate intake low enough, so your body continues producing ketones at elevated levels,” says Volek. “Your body adapts to this alternative fuel and becomes very efficient at breaking down and burning fat.”

There exists great debate on how to quantify the macronutrient ratios and percentages for a traditional ketogenic diet. Despite numerous opinions, the common and ultimate objective is to develop a diet that is sustainable in achieving the desired outcome (i.e., a state of ketosis). As such, while it is suggested that 65–80% of the total calories come from fat, and 15–30% from protein, these numbers will be optimized according to every individual’s unique metabolic needs. For example, an individual who is trying to achieve a state of ketosis might have a different ratio of macronutrient requirements than someone who is using a ketogenic diet to improve their body composition. Once the body begins to use fat as its primary fuel source, metabolic “keto-adaptation” characterized by increased production of ketones takes place. It is important to note that there is no “optimal” level of ketosis, nor is there a standard macronutrient profile to achieve a ketogenic state, because factors such as activity level, body composition, and desired health and performance outcomes will influence these variables. Although individualized, Ketogenic.com currently offers a Keto Calculator that can help provide you with a starting point on your macronutrients.
The beauty of salmon is that you can cook it with marginal interference. A simple sauce of butter, lemon juice, chopped garlic, and some salt and pepper will go a long way to enhancing the natural flavor of the salmon. Drizzle the sauce over 4-6 oz portions of fish, bake at 450F for 5 minutes per 1/2″ thickness of fish. In another bowl, toss the asparagus with olive oil, salt, and pepper, spread it out evenly on a cookie sheet, and roast in the oven at 450 for 20 minutes. Easy dinner (with leftovers if you plan ahead) that’s full of nutrition, protein, and healthy fat, while keeping your carbs low. Get the recipe and instructions

Because people with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, there’s a specific concern that the saturated fat in the diet may drive up LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels, and further increase the odds of heart problems. If you have type 2 diabetes, talk to your doctor before attempting a ketogenic diet. They may recommend a different weight-loss diet for you, like a reduced-calorie diet, to manage diabetes. Those with epilepsy should also consult their doctor before using this as part of their treatment plan.


I have PCOS as well. Research a PCOS-specific diet. It often overlaps with Keto or Paleo recipes. But you have to also avoid holstein cow produced dairy products, red meat, pork, soy products (which are in almost every processed food) in addition to carbs and sugar. And absolutely avoid anything you can’t be sure doesn’t have extra hormones injected into it (like many mass-farmed meats). Vigorous exercise is also necessary to lose weight when you have PCOS (It’s much, much more difficult for us to lose weight than people with normal hormonal balances).
"It was extremely difficult," he recalls. "You spend your entire life hearing that fat makes you fat and causes heart attacks and strokes. Now, all of a sudden, you're eating 200 grams of fat per day. There is a huge psychological component to conquer before you can become successful with the keto diet. In the beginning, it's like trying to convince people 1,000 years ago that the world is in fact round, not flat."
One area where food tracking can be especially helpful, though, is ensuring that you're hitting the right ratios of macronutrients-protein, carbs, and fat. "The most researched version of the ketogenic diet derives 70 percent of calories from healthy fats, 20 percent from protein, and only 10 percent from carbs," explains Charles Passler, D.C., nutritionist, and founder of Pure Change. "In the ideal world, each keto meal and snack should have that same (70/20/10) ratio of macronutrients, but studies have shown that you'll still achieve great results even if each meal varies slightly from that ratio, just as long as you don't exceed 50 grams per day of carbs, or eat those carbs in one sitting," says Passler. In order to achieve these ratios without a preset meal plan from a dietitian or doctor, some food tracking is probably going to be necessary. But once you get the hang of things, you may not need it anymore.
A whopping 46 percent of American adults still eat what’s considered a “poor” diet in American Heart Association standards, notes a study published in June 2016 in JAMA, which was based on a survey of nearly 34,000 people. (5) For some people, going on a keto diet is an effort to change those poor habits, but there’s the risk of falling back into your old ways once the diet is over. Don’t go straight back to a standard American diet, because you’ll likely lose any health benefits and regain the weight.
You can have a completely smooth transition into ketosis, or…not. While your body is adapting to using ketones as your new fuel source, you may experience a range of uncomfortable short-term symptoms. These symptoms are referred to as “the keto flu.” Low-sodium levels are often to blame for symptoms keto flu, since the kidneys secrete more sodium when you’re in ketosis, says Volek. A few side effects:
Keto for Cancer: Cancer is now being discussed as primarily a metabolic disease in which glucose can fuel its progression. Due to recent light shed on this subject, intensive investigations are underway and have begun to reveal that restricting carbohydrate intake can slow oncogenesis and that a full ketogenic-state may elicit even greater therapeutic benefits. Furthermore, research also suggests that fasting and the state of ketosis may increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy.
Achieving ketosis is a pretty straightforward, but it can seem complicated and confusing with all of the information out there.4If you want to learn more about ketosis and the scientific process around it, you can visit a very in-depth discussion about on Dr. Peter Attia’s website. Here’s the bottom line on what you need to do, ordered in levels of importance:
Endurance Performance: Traditionally, endurance athletes tend to consume a high amount of carbohydrates in order to “fill up” their fuel stores (i.e. glycogen) for competitions. Thus, a diet where carbohydrates are restricted seems counter-intuitive for these individuals. However, Dr. Jeff Volek’s research showed that once an individual is keto-adapted, not only is their performance the same or better than those consuming high levels of carbohydrates, but their glycogen “fuel stores” are the same as well.[11] Despite consuming a diet lower in carbohydrates, these athletes are able to adapt and utilize a nearly limitless supply of fat as their primary fuel source.
So question….what if you are watching your sodium intake due to high blood pressure? From what I read here, there is a lot of salt/sodium involved (more than my normal intake), how do I deal with this issue if doing keto? I do not take any medications. About three years ago I found that my thyroid levels were on the low end of the normal range and it affected my blood pressure. So I lowered my sodium intake and increased my iodine/iodide intake. This has worked for me for the past three years, in the sense that after a month of being on bp meds, I no longer needed those meds and my thyroid levels have stayed around the mid-range of normal. I have always eaten healthy with some junk foods here and there, but apparently being pregnant kicked off a thyroid issue and weight gain. What are my sodium options with keto? How do I balance it so my bp doesn’t take a freefall nor a significant increase?

Variations on the Johns Hopkins protocol are common. The initiation can be performed using outpatient clinics rather than requiring a stay in hospital. Often, no initial fast is used (fasting increases the risk of acidosis, hypoglycaemia, and weight loss). Rather than increasing meal sizes over the three-day initiation, some institutions maintain meal size, but alter the ketogenic ratio from 2:1 to 4:1.[9]

When you’re eating the foods that get you there (more on that in a minute), your body can enter a state of ketosis in one to three days, she adds. During the diet, the majority of calories you consume come from fat, with a little protein and very little carbohydrates. Ketosis also happens if you eat a very low-calorie diet — think doctor-supervised, only when medically recommended diets of 600 to 800 total calories.
When you eat foods high in carbohydrates and fat, your body naturally produces glucose. Carbohydrates are the easiest thing for the body to process, and therefore it will use them first – resulting in the excess fats to be stored immediately. In turn, this causes weight gain and health problems that are associated with high fat, high carbohydrate diets (NOT keto).
Ketogenesis has existed as long as humans have. If you eat a very low amount of carbohydrates, you starve your brain of glucose, its main fuel source. Your body still needs fuel to function, so it taps into your reserve of ketones, which are compounds the liver creates from fat when blood insulin is low. This process is known as ketosis: It’s like when a hybrid car runs out of gas and reverts to pure electricity.
Sleep enough – for most people at least seven hours per night on average – and keep stress under control. Sleep deprivation and stress hormones raise blood sugar levels, slowing ketosis and weight loss a bit. Plus they might make it harder to stick to a keto diet and resist temptations. So while handling sleep and stress will not get you into ketosis on its own, it’s still worth thinking about.
Normal dietary fat contains mostly long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are more ketogenic than LCTs because they generate more ketones per unit of energy when metabolised. Their use allows for a diet with a lower proportion of fat and a greater proportion of protein and carbohydrate,[18] leading to more food choices and larger portion sizes.[4] The original MCT diet developed by Peter Huttenlocher in the 1970s derived 60% of its calories from MCT oil.[15] Consuming that quantity of MCT oil caused abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting in some children. A figure of 45% is regarded as a balance between achieving good ketosis and minimising gastrointestinal complaints. The classical and modified MCT ketogenic diets are equally effective and differences in tolerability are not statistically significant.[9] The MCT diet is less popular in the United States; MCT oil is more expensive than other dietary fats and is not covered by insurance companies.[18]

The brain is composed of a network of neurons that transmit signals by propagating nerve impulses. The propagation of this impulse from one neuron to another is typically controlled by neurotransmitters, though there are also electrical pathways between some neurons. Neurotransmitters can inhibit impulse firing (primarily done by γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA) or they can excite the neuron into firing (primarily done by glutamate). A neuron that releases inhibitory neurotransmitters from its terminals is called an inhibitory neuron, while one that releases excitatory neurotransmitters is an excitatory neuron. When the normal balance between inhibition and excitation is significantly disrupted in all or part of the brain, a seizure can occur. The GABA system is an important target for anticonvulsant drugs, since seizures may be discouraged by increasing GABA synthesis, decreasing its breakdown, or enhancing its effect on neurons.[7]

And if you can't survive without your pasta, there are plenty of products out there like Explore Cuisine's organic black bean spaghetti that give you the pasta experience without the carbs. There are also tons of keto-friendly restaurants—like Red Lobster, Olive Garden, and Texas Roadhouse—that can allow you to treat yourself to a night out without coming out of ketosis.


The “Slaw Hash” Which is a actually eggroll filling without the wrapper is delicious even without being keto. My husband requests it every other week and he isn’t even really fond of cabbage. I use shredded cabbage, a few finely sliced white mushrooms, sliced white onion, ground pork or turkey, soy sauce, white pepper, a cap-full of bombay sapphire gin (tastes sort of like sake, without having to add a TON of sake), and one shredded carrot.


One of the most common misconceptions about the keto diet is that you can eat as much protein as you’d like. But this is not a diet where you watch carbs only — you also have to keep your protein intake moderate, says Ginger Hultin, a Seattle-based registered dietitian, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition, and the owner of ChampagneNutrition. Protein can be converted into glucose, and therefore overeating protein can take your body out of ketosis. Think of your ratios as a small portion of meat topped with a generous amount of fat, rather than the other way around.

The ketogenic diet may seem like the Jekyll to the Hyde-like low-fat craze of the 1990s. The bulk of current research finds that the middle ground between the two extremes is more beneficial for overall health. Make it easy for yourself: Eat at least two servings a week of fatty fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel) and cook with a variety of quality fats (olive oil, canola oil, avocado oil) throughout the week.
Having tempting, unhealthy foods in your home is one of the biggest reasons for failure when starting any diet. To maximize your chances of success with the keto diet, you need to remove as many triggers as you can. This crucial step will help prevent moments of weakness from ruining all your hard work.If you aren’t living alone, make sure to discuss with your family or housemates before throwing anything out. If some items are simply not yours to throw out, try to compromise and agree on a special location so you can keep them out of sight.
Early studies reported high success rates; in one study in 1925, 60% of patients became seizure-free, and another 35% of patients had a 50% reduction in seizure frequency. These studies generally examined a cohort of patients recently treated by the physician (a retrospective study) and selected patients who had successfully maintained the dietary restrictions. However, these studies are difficult to compare to modern trials. One reason is that these older trials suffered from selection bias, as they excluded patients who were unable to start or maintain the diet and thereby selected from patients who would generate better results. In an attempt to control for this bias, modern study design prefers a prospective cohort (the patients in the study are chosen before therapy begins) in which the results are presented for all patients regardless of whether they started or completed the treatment (known as intent-to-treat analysis).[19]

I would love to share your journey on my blog. If you are planning to start this keto diet, please take before pictures, progress pictures, keep a food diary, and keep track of your weight and measurements. Then when you are ready maybe at your halfway point, or once you reach your goal weight, you can send me your results for me to share with others.
In the 1960s, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) were found to produce more ketone bodies per unit of energy than normal dietary fats (which are mostly long-chain triglycerides).[15] MCTs are more efficiently absorbed and are rapidly transported to the liver via the hepatic portal system rather than the lymphatic system.[16] The severe carbohydrate restrictions of the classic ketogenic diet made it difficult for parents to produce palatable meals that their children would tolerate. In 1971, Peter Huttenlocher devised a ketogenic diet where about 60% of the calories came from the MCT oil, and this allowed more protein and up to three times as much carbohydrate as the classic ketogenic diet. The oil was mixed with at least twice its volume of skimmed milk, chilled, and sipped during the meal or incorporated into food. He tested it on 12 children and adolescents with intractable seizures. Most children improved in both seizure control and alertness, results that were similar to the classic ketogenic diet. Gastrointestinal upset was a problem, which led one patient to abandon the diet, but meals were easier to prepare and better accepted by the children.[15] The MCT diet replaced the classic ketogenic diet in many hospitals, though some devised diets that were a combination of the two.[10]

But there is evidence that low-carb diets may increase metabolism, according to a paper published November 14 in BMJ. Researchers found that overweight adults who lowered carbohydrates and added more fat into their diets burned about 250 calories more each day than people on high-carb, low-fat diets. The study is impressive because it's the largest, most expensive, and controlled study of its kind.
In 1921, Rollin Turner Woodyatt reviewed the research on diet and diabetes. He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (known collectively as ketone bodies), were produced by the liver in otherwise healthy people when they were starved or if they consumed a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.[10] Dr. Russell Morse Wilder, at the Mayo Clinic, built on this research and coined the term "ketogenic diet" to describe a diet that produced a high level of ketone bodies in the blood (ketonemia) through an excess of fat and lack of carbohydrate. Wilder hoped to obtain the benefits of fasting in a dietary therapy that could be maintained indefinitely. His trial on a few epilepsy patients in 1921 was the first use of the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy.[10]
Quite simply, for the majority of people the answer is a resounding “yes!” Due to its high-fat nature, it is often perceived as a health risk, often deterring individuals from trying it. Despite this misconception, research has demonstrated that the ketogenic diet is safe for most people, providing you don’t have one of the following conditions (even if you have any of these conditions, the ketogenic diet may still be safe, but you would need to work very closely with your doctor):
If you want to slam a protein shake post-workout, that's probably fine as long as you've got room for it in your macros. But shoot for one that is very low—like, zero—in carbohydrates. Pure isolates, such as Signature 100% Whey Isolate, are extremely low in carbohydrate. If you struggle to fit fat in during the day, toss a tablespoon of olive oil in with your shake. You won't taste it, and it gives a quick 13-14 grams of fat.

 Health.com is part of the Meredith Health Group. ©, Copyright 2019 Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. The material in this site is intended to be of general informational use and is not intended to constitute medical advice, probable diagnosis, or recommended treatments. All products and services featured are selected by our editors. Health.com may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. Offers may be subject to change without notice. Privacy Policythis link opens in a new tab Data Policythis link opens in a new tab Terms of Servicethis link opens in a new tab Ad Choicesthis link opens in a new tab EU Data Subject Requeststhis link opens in a new tab Your California Privacy Rightsthis link opens in a new tab Web Accessibilitythis link opens in a new tab

Keto for Diabetes: The ketogenic diet can be an extremely effective therapeutic treatment for diabetes. Since type 2 diabetes is hallmarked by insulin resistance, a ketogenic diet may improve insulin-resistance, associated pathological state via the following: 1) lowering and stabilizing both blood glucose and insulin levels, 2) improving insulin sensitivity, and 3) providing an alternative fuel source through ketone production. Virta Health recently published a report showing patients could rapidly improve glycemic control through reductions in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and medication use after 10 weeks of treatment. Patients lost 7% of their body weight on average and reported less hunger. For more information, please visit our friends at Virta Health who are actively working with diabetics (https://www.virtahealth.com).
Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it – when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. Optimal ketone levels offer many health, weight loss, physical and mental performance benefits.1There are scientifically-backed studies that show the advantage of a low-carb, ketogenic diet over a low-fat diet. One meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate diets showed a large advantage in weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine study resulted in almost double the weight loss in a long-term study on ketone inducing diets.
Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, PhD, RD, , Mary Dean Coleman, PhD, RD, Joanne J. Volpe, Kathy W. Hosig, PhD, MPH, RD, “Perceived Hunger Is Lower and Weight Loss Is Greater in Overweight Premenopausal Women Consuming a Low-Carbohydrate/High-Protein vs High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet,” The Journal of Pediatrics: Vol 105, Issue 9: 1433–1437; September 2005. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000282230501151X.
A study with an intent-to-treat prospective design was published in 1998 by a team from the Johns Hopkins Hospital[20] and followed-up by a report published in 2001.[21] As with most studies of the ketogenic diet, no control group (patients who did not receive the treatment) was used. The study enrolled 150 children. After three months, 83% of them were still on the diet, 26% had experienced a good reduction in seizures, 31% had had an excellent reduction, and 3% were seizure-free.[Note 7] At 12 months, 55% were still on the diet, 23% had a good response, 20% had an excellent response, and 7% were seizure-free. Those who had discontinued the diet by this stage did so because it was ineffective, too restrictive, or due to illness, and most of those who remained were benefiting from it. The percentage of those still on the diet at two, three, and four years was 39%, 20%, and 12%, respectively. During this period, the most common reason for discontinuing the diet was because the children had become seizure-free or significantly better. At four years, 16% of the original 150 children had a good reduction in seizure frequency, 14% had an excellent reduction, and 13% were seizure-free, though these figures include many who were no longer on the diet. Those remaining on the diet after this duration were typically not seizure-free, but had had an excellent response.[21][22]
The meal plan is designed to ensure you get three balanced, healthy meals a day that address fiber, satiation, and adequate protein intake. The greatest part of a ketogenic diet is the fact that it spares muscle loss, where a carb-based diet doesn’t. Weight lost in a high carb, calorie-restricted diet will often come both from muscle and fat, whereas with keto, you can burn fat without sacrificing muscle. This is referred to often as “body recomposition” and leaves you with a much more preferred physique after weight loss.
The ketogenic diet is usually initiated in combination with the patient's existing anticonvulsant regimen, though patients may be weaned off anticonvulsants if the diet is successful. Some evidence of synergistic benefits is seen when the diet is combined with the vagus nerve stimulator or with the drug zonisamide, and that the diet may be less successful in children receiving phenobarbital.[18]
The “Slaw Hash” Which is a actually eggroll filling without the wrapper is delicious even without being keto. My husband requests it every other week and he isn’t even really fond of cabbage. I use shredded cabbage, a few finely sliced white mushrooms, sliced white onion, ground pork or turkey, soy sauce, white pepper, a cap-full of bombay sapphire gin (tastes sort of like sake, without having to add a TON of sake), and one shredded carrot.

The ketogenic diet is calculated by a dietitian for each child. Age, weight, activity levels, culture, and food preferences all affect the meal plan. First, the energy requirements are set at 80–90% of the recommended daily amounts (RDA) for the child's age (the high-fat diet requires less energy to process than a typical high-carbohydrate diet). Highly active children or those with muscle spasticity require more food energy than this; immobile children require less. The ketogenic ratio of the diet compares the weight of fat to the combined weight of carbohydrate and protein. This is typically 4:1, but children who are younger than 18 months, older than 12 years, or who are obese may be started on a 3:1 ratio. Fat is energy-rich, with 9 kcal/g (38 kJ/g) compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrate or protein, so portions on the ketogenic diet are smaller than normal. The quantity of fat in the diet can be calculated from the overall energy requirements and the chosen ketogenic ratio. Next, the protein levels are set to allow for growth and body maintenance, and are around 1 g protein for each kg of body weight. Lastly, the amount of carbohydrate is set according to what allowance is left while maintaining the chosen ratio. Any carbohydrate in medications or supplements must be subtracted from this allowance. The total daily amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrate is then evenly divided across the meals.[37]

×